A sweetener is an edible r1II1 additive that imparts a sweet taste to a soft drink. Sweeteners can be divided into nutritive sweeteners and non-nutritive 'top sweeteners according to the nutritional value of 』t; according to their sweetness, they are divided into low-sweet sweeteners and high-sweet sweeteners; According to its source, it can be divided into natural sweeteners and synthetic sweeteners.
The main effects of sweeteners in food are as follows:
(1) Taste: Sweetness is one of the indicators of many foods. In order to make food and beverages have a palatable feeling, it is necessary to add a certain amount of sweetener.
(2) The adjustment and enhancement of the flavor generally requires sweetness in the pastry; in the beverage, the flavor is adjusted to have a "sweet to sugar ratio". Sweeteners give the product a good flavor while retaining a fresh taste.
(3) The formation of flavor, the sweetness and the flavor of many foods complement each other. The taste of many products is produced by the combination of flavor substances and sweeteners, so many foods are added with sweeteners.
Sweetness is a complex physical, chemical, and physiological process produced by a sweetener molecule that stimulates a taste bud. The level of sweetness is called sweetness and is an important indicator of sweeteners. Sweetness cannot be quantitatively determined by physical or chemical methods, and sensory judgment can only be made by virtue of people's taste. In order to compare the sweetness of sweeteners, sucrose is generally chosen as the standard, and the sweetness of other sweeteners is the relative sweetness compared with it. There are two ways to determine the relative sweetness: one is to set the sweetener to the lowest concentration that can be perceived as sweet, called the limiting concentration method; the other is to formulate the sweetener into the same solution as the sucrose. Then, the sweetness of the sweetener is compared with a sucrose solution as a relative sweetness method.
Relative sweetness of various sweeteners
The sweetness of sweeteners is affected by many factors, the main ones are concentration, temperature and medium.
In general, the higher the concentration of the sweetener, the greater the sweetness. However, the sweetness of most sweeteners varies with the concentration.
The sweetness of most sweeteners is affected by temperature and usually decreases with increasing temperature. For example, a 5% fructose solution has a sweetness of 147 at 5 ° C, 128.5 at 18 ° C, 100 at 40 ° C, and 79.5 at 60 ° C.
The media pair also has an effect. In aqueous solution below 40 ° C, the sweetness of fructose is higher than that of sucrose, and the sweetness of both in lemon juice is about the same.